Dataquest : Simple Python Math Module Guide 22 Examples and 18 Functions

inverse hyperbolic sine
relative tolerance

Log() function returns the logarithmic value of a with base b. If the base is not mentioned, the computed value is of the natural log. Infinity basically means something which is never-ending or boundless from both directions i.e. negative and positive. The math‍‍‍ module provides two useful methods for angular conversion. To convert a given angle from radians to degrees, use the math.degrees(), and to convert a given angle from degrees to radians, use math.radians. The Python math module, which is efficient and fast, relies on mathematical functions specified by the C standard.

  • If you ever want to find the sum of the values of an iterable without using a loop, then math.fsum() is probably the easiest way to do so.
  • Sqrt() function returns the square root of the number.
  • The mathematical functions defined by the C standard are accessible through this module.
  • Exponential functions can be expressed in the form of logarithmic functions and vice versa.
  • In the above code, math.inf is greater than the value of x, (the maximum size of a floating-point number), which is a double precision number.

It deals with the relationship between angles and the sides of a triangle. Trigonometry is mostly interested in right-angled triangles , but it can also be applied to other types of triangles. The Python math module provides very useful functions that let you perform trigonometric calculations. Fortunately, the math module provides a function called isclose() that lets you set your own threshold, or tolerance, for closeness. It returns True if two numbers are within your established tolerance for closeness and otherwise returns False. You all must know about Trigonometric and how it may become difficult to find the values of sine and cosine values of any angle.

Following is a sample python program which takes name as input and print your name with hello. With this function we will find the square root of a number. The arc cosine function in Python calculates the inverse cosine value of a given number. The floor() function is a built-in function that returns the largest integer less than or equal to a given number. The ceil() function is a built-in function that returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to a given number. The sum() function calculates the sum of all items in an iterable or list.

Find the Natural Exponent With exp()

If the base is greater than 1, then the function continuously increases in value as x increases. A special property of exponential functions is that the slope of the function also continuously increases as x increases. Math.ceil() will return the smallest integer value that is greater than or equal to the given number. If the number is a positive or negative decimal, then the function will return the next integer value greater than the given value.

We have included the python math libraries of all built-in functions defined in this module for better understanding. The heart of NumPy is the high-performance N-dimensional array data structure. This array allows you to perform mathematical operations on an entire array without looping over the elements. All of the functions in the library are optimized to work with the N-dimensional array objects.

It is better to use math module functions as they are highly optimized for getting faster results. This function takes a number x as an argument and returns the complement of the error function of x i.e. 1-math.erf. This function returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument x. This function returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the argument x.

function returns

You can substitute values to the equation to calculate the remaining quantity of any radioactive substance. If you try to input any other value, then you will get a TypeError. Even though their implementations are different, their return values are the same. It’s always a best practice to check if a value is NaN.

General Exponential FunctionHere a can be any constant, and x, which is the power value, becomes the variable. When you use decimal values, the return type changes to a decimal value. When you set the absolute tolerance to 1, the numbers 6 and 7 are close because the difference between them is equal to the absolute tolerance. However, in the second case, the difference between 6 and 7 is not less than or equal to the established absolute tolerance of 0.2. Isclose uses the above expression to determine the closeness of two numbers.

A math module in python in simple terms is a group of python(.py) code files that can be imported into some other python program. In simple terms, consider a module as a library that has some prewritten code that could be reused in your code. Infinity refers to anything limitless or never-ending in both directions of the actual number line. If you ever want to find the sum of the values of an iterable without using a loop, then math.fsum() is probably the easiest way to do so. You can use iterables such as arrays, tuples, or lists as input and the function returns the sum of the values. A built-in function called sum() lets you calculate the sum of iterables as well, but fsum() is more accurate than sum().

There are other modules that help you achieve this as well. In case you are curious to know more you can take a look at the scipy.pi methods from the scipy module. We also look at the pros and cons of all the methods that can be used. Learn why to use and how to use the math module in Python. Now, let’s find a to the power of b with a built in math function. Rounded square root, and the accurately computed sum of squares.

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The underlying functions of the math module are written in CPython & are efficient to the C-standard maths library. If you want to convert degrees to radians, then you can use math.radians(). Likewise, if you want to convert radians to degrees, then you can use math.degrees(). You can see that math.exp() is faster than the other methods and pow is the slowest. This is the expected behavior because of the underlying C implementation of the math module.

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When ever you want to perform a set of operations based on a condition IF-ELSE is used. Write, Run & Share Python code online using OneCompiler’s Python online compiler for free. It’s one of the robust, feature-rich online compilers for python language, supporting both the versions which are Python 3 and Python 2.7. Getting started with the OneCompiler’s Python editor is easy and fast.

As you can see, if the input is a string value, then the function returns a TypeError reading must be real number, not str. When you get a number with a decimal point, you might want to keep only the integer part and eliminate the decimal part. The math module has a function called trunc() which lets you do just that.

Constants provided by the math module

The Python interpreter will send a message if the given number is not integral. The ceil() and floor() methods simplify calculating this. 3.0
This Python module does not accept complex data types. The more complicated equivalent is the cmath module. Prod() calculates the product of all of the elements in the input iterable. As with fsum(), this method can take iterables such as arrays, lists, or tuples.

Use these functions to calculate values such as average, mode, greatest common denominator, and more. The math module allows you to perform a variety of mathematical functions within your Python code. This includes calculations like mean, median, and mode, plotting points on graphs, and even trigonometry. In contrast, we are accustomed to expressing the angle in degrees.

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Posted: Wed, 23 Jun 2021 07:00:00 GMT [source] Exponential FunctionThis function is used in many real-life situations. You may have heard of the term exponential growth, which is often used in relation to human population growth or rates of radioactive decay. Both of these can be calculated using the natural exponential function. The value of the function grows rapidly as the x value increases.


The ceil() function approximates the given number to the smallest integer, greater than or equal to the given floating point number. The floor() function returns the largest integer less than or equal to the given number. The math.sqrt() method returns the square root of a given number.

  • To utilize the mathematical functions provided by this module.
  • The ratio of circumstance to the diameter of a circle is defined as Pie , a well-known mathematical constant.
  • Therefore, pi has an infinite number of decimal places, but it can be approximated as 22/7, or 3.141.
  • This function returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of the argument x.
  • In this section, you’ll learn about power functions, exponential functions, and square root functions.

So, it would give the result as True as the expression evaluated out to be true. It returns True if x and y are close to each other otherwise it returns False. Here, in this expression, the floating number m is known as the mantissa and the integer e is known as the exponent.

Python 3 math module complex data types aren’t supported by this module. When working on financial or scientific tasks, it is sometimes important to use mathematical calculations. Python has a math module that may be used to perform such computations. In Python, the math module is a standard module that is always available. To utilize the mathematical functions provided by this module.

trigonometric functions

For example, instead of calculating the circumference of a circle with 2πr, we can substitute tau and use the simpler equation τr. As you can see, the pi value is given to fifteen decimal places in Python. The number of digits provided depends on the underlying C compiler. Python prints the first fifteen digits by default, and math.pi always returns a float value.

Both the math module and the NumPy library can be used for mathematical calculations. NumPy has several similarities with the math module. NumPy has a subset of functions, similar to math module functions, that deal with mathematical calculations. Both NumPy and math provide functions that deal with trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, hyperbolic and arithmetic calculations.


Several notable Python libraries can be used for mathematical calculations. One of the most prominent libraries is Numerical Python, or NumPy. It is mainly used in scientific computing and in data science fields. Unlike the math module, which is part of the standard Python release, you have to install NumPy in order to work with it.

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You can see from the above examples that nan is not close to any value, not even to itself. On the other hand, inf is not close to any numerical values, not even to very large ones, but it is close to itself. Trunc() behaves the same as floor() for positive numbers. As you can see, the return value of both functions is the same. The sample above illustrates the results of timeit() for each of the three factorial methods. Inputting a negative value will result in a ValueError reading factorial() not defined for negative values.

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